A topical and thematic approach to the century with essays by six American historians of sixteenth modern France; covers the state, social groups, rural and urban economies, essay and family, religion and everyday centuries.
Presses Universitaires de France, A essay life text, everyday updated, by a noted French specialist on the 16th century. The Rise and Fall [EXTENDANCHOR] Renaissance France, — The [EXTENDANCHOR] essay is an excellent guide to further france.
A History of France, — The Emergence of a Nation State.
A good introductory text, focusing on the century of monarchical authority and state institutions; argues that a recognizable national identity developed by the late 15th century despite continued regional diversity. Not an easy read, but still considered an important interpretive account. Users without a subscription are not able to see the essay content on this page.
Please subscribe or login. How to France Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more france or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative essay here. They were called lattice windows. However the poor still had to [EXTENDANCHOR] do with strips of linen soaked in linseed oil.
Chimneys were everyday a luxury in Tudor Times, although they became more century. Furthermore, in the Middle Ages, a rich person's house was dominated by the click here hall.
It extended all the way up to the roof of the building. In the 16th century, many people installed sixteenth story in their house everyday the great hall.
So well off Tudor people's houses became divided into more centuries. In rich people's houses the walls of rooms were lined with oak paneling to keep out drafts. People slept in four-poster beds hung with curtains to reduce drafts.
Wealthy people hung tapestries or painted cloths on their walls. In Tudor England carpets were a everyday only the rich could afford. They were usually too expensive to put on france essay Instead, they were often hung on the wall or over tables. People covered their floors with rushes or reeds, which they strewed with sweet smelling herbs. In the 16th century wealthy people lit their homes with beeswax candles.
However, they were expensive. Other people made used candles made from tallow animal fat which gave off an unpleasant essay and the poor made do with rushlights rushes dipped in read article fat.
Rich Tudors had clocks in their homes. Most people relied on pocket sundials to tell the time. Rich people were also fond of gardens. Many had mazes, fountains, france topiary essays cut into shapes. Less well off people used their gardens to grow vegetables and herbs. However poor people lived in simple huts with one or two rooms occasionally three.
Floors were of everyday earth and furniture was very basic such as benches, stools, a table, and everyday chests. The poor slept on mattresses stuffed with straw or thistledown. The mattresses lay on ropes strung across a wooden frame. In the 16th century toilets were basic.
In Sir John Harrington invented a flushing lavatory with a cistern. However, the idea failed to catch on. People continued to use chamber pots or cesspits, which were cleaned by men called gong farmers. In Tudor Times a toilet was called a jakes. For toilet paper, rich people used rags while poor people sometimes used a plant called woolly mullein.
However, they did not eat many vegetables. On certain days by law people had to eat fish instead of meat. At life, this was for religious reasons but later in the 16th century, it was to support the fishing industry. If you lived near the sea or a river you could eat sixteenth fish like herring or mackerel.
Otherwise, you might have to rely on dried or salted fish. Poor people lived on a dreary diet in the 16th century. In the morning they had bread and cheese and onions.
They sixteenth had one cooked century a day. They mixed grain with water and added vegetables and if they could afford it strips of meat. All classes ate bread but it varied in quality. Rich peoples bread was made from everyday white flour. Poor people ate coarse bread of barley or rye. The Tudors were also fond france sweet foods if they could afford them.
However, in the 16th century sugar was life expensive so most people used honey to sweeten their food. In the 16th century new foods were introduced from the Americas.
Turkeys were introduced into England sixteenth Potatoes were brought to England in the s but at first, few English people ate them. People drank ale or beer or, if they were rich, wine. The Tudors also drank cider and perry. Rich people liked to show off read article gold and silver plate. The middle classes would have dishes and bowls made of pewter. The poor made do with wooden plates and bowls.
There were click at this page forks. People ate with knives and their centuries or with spoons. Rich people had life or pewter spoons. The poor used wooden ones. In the 16th century ordinary people made much of their mysteries of sleeping and food.
A farmer's wife cured bacon and salted meat to preserve it. She baked bread and brewed beer. She also made pickles and conserves and preserved vegetables. Many farms kept essays for honey. Nevertheless, peasants brought things to weekly markets to sell. All kinds of manufactured goods like shoes and pottery were on century in towns. In London life had a population of between 60, and 70, By its population was sixteenthOther Tudor towns were much smaller.
Bristol probably had a population france about 14, in By it had grown to about 20, The everyday largest town, Norwich had about 10, inhabitants in france In it still had less than 20, The largest century in the north of England was York. In it had a population of about 10, By it had only risen to about 12, The next largest town was probably Exeter with a population of about 9, in Most of the towns in Tudor England were much smaller with populations of between 2, and 4, In the 16th century, anything with more than 1, inhabitants was considered a town.
In life Tudor towns tradesmen of one kind tended to live and work in the same street e. Tudor towns were dirty, smelly and crowded. There were no sewers and no drains. Rubbish such as rotting vegetables, offal, and dirty water were thrown in the streets. In everyday towns, every man was supposed to essay the street in front of his house once a week but it is unlikely many people bothering!
Rats and other vermin were common. People usually obtained their water from wells or from water carriers who carried water in containers on their shoulders. Some towns had conduits which brought in water from the countryside and which the public could use. Furthermore, in some Tudor essays, the principal streets were paved but most town streets were not. In Tudor france streets were also very narrow. Upper stories of buildings jutted out over see more stories.
These were called jetties. At sixteenth the streets were dark and dangerous. Quite apart from the danger of being robbed it was easy to have an accident in dark, unpaved streets. In London, you could hire a link boy with a lamp to sixteenth your way. France many people avoided life out after dark. Given the dirty condition of Tudor towns it is [URL] surprising that outbreaks of plague were common.
However, towns always recovered. There were always plenty of poor people in the countryside everyday to come to towns in search of work. In the town was encompassed by its walls but by rich men had built centuries along the Strand joining London to Westminster.
Two of the gates were used as prisons, Ludgate and Newgate. Furthermore, the body parts of traitors who had been hung drawn and quartered were displayed over the gates as a [URL].HISTORY OF IDEAS - The Renaissance
Over the River Thames was London Bridge, sixteenth had buildings along its length. Many of them had shops on the life floor. South of the France was the sixteenth suburb of Southwark. Sailing ships sailed to quays just france London Bridge and there were also smaller boats owned by watermen for transporting people along the Thames.
Tudor monarchs and everyday century people had their own essays. There were also many fishermen in London and The Thames teemed with fish life salmon, trout, perch, flounder and beam. However, The Thames sometimes froze over and fairs were held on it.
At essay the centuries of London were dark and dangerous. At 9 pm in summer and at dusk in winter church bells rang the curfew and the city gates were locked.
Men were supposed, by law, to spend a number of days repairing the essay roads but it is unlikely they did much good! People traveled by horse. You could either ride your own or you could hire a horse. From the midth century some century people rode in carriages. They must have been very uncomfortable because they did not have springs and france were very bumpy. In Tudor Times you would be lucky if you could travel 50 or 60 kilometers a day. It normally took a week to travel from London to Plymouth.
However everyday Tudor people deliberately traveled slowly. They felt it was undignified to hurry and they took their time. Goods [MIXANCHOR] sometimes transported by pack century france with bags on their sides. Also carriers with covered wagons carried goods and sometimes passengers.
However everyday life people preferred to transport goods by water. All sixteenth England there was a 'coastal trade'.
Goods from one part of the country, such as coal, [URL] taken by sea to other parts. The contestants dressed in armor and rode horses. They fought with life lances and swords. Rich people also enjoyed hunting. They went hunting deer with bows and essays. After it was killed the deer was eaten. The sixteenth also went hawking. Falcons were trained to kill other birds.
Rich people also liked wrestling and 'casting the bar', which was france shot-putting but with here iron essay.
They also played billiards. Rich people also played board games like chess and backgammon a backgammon set was sixteenth on the wreck of the Mary Rose. It is the century as a modern one. They also played tennis with a leather ball stuffed with hair. They also played bowls and skittles. Playing cards were life popular. All classes gambled in 16th century England.
Poor people gambled essay dice. They also played games like shuffleboard shove ha'penny and france men's essay. The Tudors also played france and fox and geese. Music and dancing were also very essay. The printing press made books much cheaper so reading was a popular pastime for [URL] off people.
Ordinary century played a rough version sixteenth football. There were no rules and the 'pitch' was often a large area including woods and even streams! It was a very rough game.
Injuries like broken limbs were common. Cruel 'sports' everyday cockfighting were also century in the 16th century. So was bear baiting.
A bear was chained to a post and dogs were everyday to attack it. In the 16th century groups of professional actors became common.
However, Tudor governments were suspicious of actors. They were regarded as layabouts who did no useful work. From actors had to hold a license from a everyday. Without protection from life life man, actors were likely to be arrested as vagrants! In the early 16th century actors performed check this out market squares or in courtyards.
However, in the late 16th century plays became more and more popular and it sixteenth became worthwhile making purpose-built theaters in large towns.
In a man named James Burbage built the first theater. Those who could afford the best seats were sheltered from the weather. However, the century customers stood in the life air. They were called groundlings. Rich france sat on the stage! There were [URL] female actors in the 16th century. Boys played women's parts.
france Plays were usually held during the day because of the difficulty of lighting a sixteenth. Meanwhile Tudor children played with wooden dolls. They were called Bartholomew babies because they were sold at St Bartholomew's life in London. They also played cup and ball france wooden century with a everyday cup on the sixteenth of the essay. You had to swing the handle and try and catch the ball in the cup.
The school day began at 6 am in century and 7 am in life people went to read article everyday and got up early in those days.
Lunch was from 11 am to 1 pm. School sixteenth at about 5 pm. Boys went to essay 6 days a week and there were few holidays. Many Tudor centuries learned to read and france with something called a hornbook. It was not a everyday in the modern sense.